How to Calculate and Convert Odds

m88a So for example odds of +550 would look like this:

For example 10/1 would mean that a stake of 1 would yield winnings of 10, for a total return of 11 including the original stake.

American odds are perhaps the most complicated of the three systems to understand and are based on how much one would have to stake in order to achieve a return of 100. For example decimal odds of 4.5 and a stake of 2 would be expressed as follows:

Basic Factor

Perhaps the easiest way of calculating fractional odds if you aren’t used to them is to convert them into decimal odds instead.

In order to do this simply add the two figures of the fraction together and divide by the right hand number. This often means that working the odds can be tricky unless you understand what they are expressing.

We are then left with a decimal figure which can be multiplied by a stake figure to calculate a return.

Fractional odds, also known as English odds, are the oldest way of expressing odds and do so as a fraction. For example using -220 as an example:

+550 + 100 =650 650 divided by 100 = 6.5

2 (stake) x 4.5 (odds) = 9 (total return)

For positive odds, ie those with a + sign next to them, we simply add 100 to the American odds figure and then divide by 100. The right hand figure in fractional odds represents the stake while the left hand figure represents the winnings.

A plus sign in front of an odd represents how much a stake of 100 would return, so for example:

For example 12/5 would mean that a stake of 5 would result in winnings of 12, however with a different stake this isn’t easy to work out. That being the case converting the fraction into a decimal is generally the easiest way of calculating it (see below).

Decimal odds are the easiest and simplest odds to calculate due to the fact that they are simply multiplied by the stake to give total returns. American odds are expressed with a + or – in front of them are are shown in units of ten.

10/3 10+3=13 13 divided by 3 = 4.33

100 divided by 220 = 0.45 0.45 + 1 = 1.45

Fractional, Decimal and American odds

Depending on where you are geographically, odds can be expressed in any one of three ways, each very different from the others. +650 would return winnings of 650 with an initial stake of 100.

More complex examples however aren’t nearly so easy to calculate, particularly if the stake is different to the number expressed in the odds and won’t divide evenly

For minus odds we divide 100 by the American odds and add one. For example: (thai-m88)

A minus sign represents how much would need to be staked in order return winnings of 100. So for example -220 would mean that 220 would need to be staked in order to return winnings of 100.

Converting American odds to decimals

Although a little more complicated, American odds can also be converted to decimal odds fairly easily, making them much easier to calculate.

Infographic Shows Popularity of Sports Betting

m88 สำรอง sport in the United States. Straight bets, or those that simply choose the winner, propositional bets, parlays, and future wagers are all among the top etting types. Top Betting Action has created a new infographic that is now showing just how the growth of sports betting is thriving. Nearly 67% of college students have bet in one way or another on sports. The betting types all depended upon the individual, and spanned every sport from baseball to football, basketball to hockey, with horse racing being one of the most popular to bet on.

While many of the gamblers within the United States are full-grown adults, there are many college students who take part in the activity as well. An additional 80% of high school students bet as well, though many are not legal gambling and is often amongst friends. The American Gaming Association stated “Overall, Nevada’s legal sports wagering represents less than 1% of all sports betting nationwide. Twenty-five percent of males between 14-22 have placed a wager every month, with the NFL being the largest amongst the age group. Another 15% of individuals have gambled once within the past month. 19 by Top Betting Action detailed that information showing that college students are betting regularly on sporting events.

Based on the infographic, 65% of all Americans have gambled on sports at least once, while 30% have gambled on sports within the last year. And 3% had even placed wagers within the last day. In 2011, $2.88 billion was legally wagered in Nevada’s sports books; the National Gambling Impact Study Commission (NGISC) estimated that illegal wagers are as much as $380 billion annually.”

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An infogrpahic released on Thursday, Sept. The act of placing wagers on sporting outcomes has been popular for some time amongst friends and work betting pools, however, the growth in casinos and online has grown to huge unprecedented levels.. The Super Bowl and NCAA March Madness tournament are two of the largest payouts in the United States.

The infographic showed that several kinds of bets are placed most often. There are head-to-head bets, as well as totalizators, progressive parlays and if bets which have each grown in popularity.

As the niche of sports betting continues to rise in worldwide popularity, there appears to be no limit to the amount of money and effort put into the interest. A tally of 44% of all 12th grade males have wagered at least once on sports.

Other than poker, sports gambling is (hhht888)

Striking It Rich (or Striking Out) in Daily Fantasy Sports

If someone gets hurt, its luck. Pallone, ranking member of the Energy and Commerce Committee, requested a hearing to examine the relationship of fantasy m88a sports to gambling in professional leagues.

You know, put down a bet and get a high return by betting on a team, players, whatever. Studies show that fantasy participants watch more games and watch them for longer than people who dont play fantasy sports.

But critics, including Congressman Frank Pallone, D-N.J., argue that the leagues are a form of gambling. Trust us, our lawyers drive very nice cars so that we can keep it that way,” FanDuel says on its website as its short answer for the frequently asked question, “Is FanDuel Legal?”

Meanwhile, some sports fans really do hit the jackpot. Lewis watched Mondays Atlanta Falcons-Philadelphia Eagles game, hoping for a nice payout because of players statistical achievements.

Tonight didnt really go how I would have liked, but Im definitely looking forward to next week, he said.

The Associated Press contributed to this story.

. Even the traditional casino companies and regulators have eschewed the word “gambling” until recently, opting for the more antiseptic “gaming” instead to describe what they do.

Daily fantasy sports and its defenders point to a 2006 law, the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act, that carved out a specific exemption for “fantasy sports” well before the concept of daily games versus week-long or season-long were contemplated. The services have partnered with major sports leagues and brands. Travis Spieth was able to quit his day job after winning $1 million in a 2013 FanDuel contest.

Its very comparable to stock trading, and if you ask somebody that’s dealing in stocks, they’re definitely not going to tell you they’re gambling cause there’s a lot of research involved, Spieth said.

For Scott Lewis, the big bucks remain a fantasy at least this week. But if its just coming down to that day, its actually harder to win at daily fantasy than it is at season-long fantasy.

The leagues, in which participants make up teams with real players, have drawn added attention to NFL action. The start of the NFL season draws renewed focus on fantasy sports, a chance to assemble imaginary teams featuring your favorite players.

While fantasy sports leagues often cover an entire season, an emerging trend involves one-week or daily fantasy sports, offering a shorter window, but the potential for an immediate payoff. DraftKings, for instance, has an advertising relationship with ESPN, which, like ABC News, is part of the Walt Disney Co.

ESPN Sports Business Reporter Darren Rovell said daily fantasy football requires more skill than chance.

Every day, you know who is going to play, Rovell said. How is it any different from sports betting? I don’t see it; what, because you call it fantasy? Pallone said (see th-m88).

The fantasy industry says it’s already legal and has no interest in being regulated if it comes with a “gambling” label. Daily fantasy football has become big business, and the rewards can be substantial.

But do the leagues represent a form of gambling?

Two of the most popular daily fantasy sports providers are FanDuel and DraftKings, both estimated to bring in tens of millions of dollars in entry fees for the NFLs first week, according to a recent Bloomberg article. Before the rise of daily fantasy sports, the exception was mostly used by top season-long fantasy operators like Yahoo and CBS Sports.

“Thanks to fantasy sports being specifically excluded from laws affecting online sports betting, FanDuel is not illegal in any way

Daily fantasy sports betting going down the same road as online poker

Mike Sexton became a household name for many. Just a word of advice– Don’t keep too much money on the sites.

The bottom line is the government will always want a piece of the action. PokerStars, Full Tilt Poker, and Absolute Poker were closed for business to all American players. Right?. On April 15, 2011 — a day known as “Black Friday” among the online poker community — the United States government shut down the three big online poker sites. You want to play in a tournament against thousands of others with the chance for a huge payout? Or do you want to just “grind” out a steady profit? You could play single “m88a games” against only fifty people, twenty, or nine– how many ever you want. And they must sit and wonder how these sites have gotten away with this as long as they have. Online poker sites that once would be lucky to have 1,000 players online at any given time now had over 200,000– many of them “fish,” a term used to describe bad players. Money in players’ accounts was frozen and seized. The government will, eventually, shut down daily fantasy sports betting just like it did to online poker wagering.

Wrong, said the United States government. The government calls daily fantasy sports betting “gambling.” The accused sites argue that fantasy sports is a “game of skill” and not “gambling.” The government goes after the payment processors for the various sites.

It was only a matter of time. They cause a lot of buzz. Poof! Just like that. The government, especially, notices they aren’t getting their piece of the action. It will be interesting to see how this plays out, because as popular as online poker may have been (and it was enormously popular), fantasy football is even bigger and more mainstream. You can play against how many ever opponents you want. Some, eventually, got their money back. People were having fun. The two fantasy sports sites have chosen to ignore the injunction and elected to continue to take bets from New York residents. Basically, the New York A.G. They witnessed the boom of poker. The government has begun to take notice. Some are still waiting.

Enjoy it while it lasts, friends. A poker player can calculate the odds of a certain card hitting the table as much as any fantasy sports bettor can calculate the odds of a certain hitter getting a base hit against a certain pitcher.

Those who played online poker for a living know how this is going to end. Online players were in heaven. Poker After Dark. Not everyone may know how to play poker, but nearly everyone watches football. Advertising is annoyingly saturating the airwaves. FanDuel and DraftKings are suing the New York Attorney General.

The online poker player is very familiar with these game setups. Money was changing hands. ESPN and NBC couldn’t get enough poker programming. They generate a lot of money. These sites gain popularity. No one was being hurt. Advertising for sites like PokerStars and PartyPoker were inundating the airwaves. There has been the scandal questioning the integrity of the game. The New York State Attorney General sent out cease and desist letters a week ago to FanDuel and DraftKings. How about head-to-head with just one other opponent? You could even create your own tournaments with as many, or as few, players as you like.

Former online poker players have seen this story play out before. The public outcry will be huge if fantasy sports betting is deemed illegal.

So what is happening to daily fantasy sites like FanDuel and DraftKings comes as no surprise to former online poker players. And you can play as many times as you want. World Series of Poker. Poker is just as much a game of skill as betting on fantasy sports. There are the various buy-ins, ranging from free, to a single dollar, to as much as several hundreds of dollars. Any online poker player who has visited DraftKings will find an eery familiarity between the lobby area of the online fantasy sports site and their old favorite online poker websites (https://www.facebook.com/m88.m88a). It’s the same pattern. The legal wrangling has already begun in one state. is banning fantasy sports betting by New York residents. They enjoyed the proliferation of the game into mainstream media

Casino-Gaming :: Down Memory Lane with Roulette

ทางเข้า fun88 And till the time people continue to gamble roulette will remain the game of choice worldwide.

. The myth goes that they sold their soul to the devil to know the secret of the game. This wheel continues to be used in the USA even today while Europe continues to use the roulette wheel with just a single zero.

The name roulette comes from French for “little wheel”. It was here in Monte Carlo where the game caught like wildfire and started attracting some of the most famous names worldwide who came to play in the casinos here.

Many people credit the brothers Louis and Francois Blanc as the inventors of roulette. Whether you go to Monte Carlo or Las Vegas you will find the most number of gamblers around the roulette table. As far as modern roulette is concerned one must credit Louis and Francois Blanc for their popularity. This happened sometime in the 18th century. What do they proffer as proof for this theory the sum of the numbers on the roulette wheel is 666. It was actually in France where the game seems to have originated and then it spread to the other countries of the world.

The popularity of roulette in the United States of America moved up the River Mississippi. After they introduced single zero roulette wheel in 1843 in Homburg in Germany they later on moved to Monte Carlo in the 1860s when the German government abolished gambling. The reference to roulette was actually found earlier in 1758 in the regulations for Quebec and then in the novel La Roulette, ou le Jou by Jaques Lablee. There is no definite history that one can come up with (fun88no1).

But it is generally believed that it was the famous mathematician of France Blaise Pascal who came up with the first form of roulette as he was searching for an ideal machine having perpetual motion. But some people believe that the game started thousands of years ago maybe in Persia or maybe in China. The French version became popular first but the American roulette wheel suddenly had three extra slots one for single zero, one for double zero and for the American Eagle. From the time it was introduced as a casino game it became immensely popular and remains one of the most popular casino games even today. While the eagle disappeared after sometime the slots for single zero and double zero stayed

Don’t Be a Square: 10 Tips for Betting on Football

“Common wisdom says that over the course of a long football season the average man or woman will pick approximately 50 percent winners. There is a wealth of information on the Internet; it is just up to you to find it and research it daily.”

“The standard bet requires gamblers to lay $11 for every $10 they want to win with the extra $1 or 10 percent known as the juice,” Konik says. If you want advice about sports betting, find someone who has a successful track record.

Certainly not back into the pockets of the average bettor. If North Texas is his best bet on a Saturday then that is his bet. These books change their numbers according to the betting patterns of their customers, so it is not entirely uncommon to find two or three point differences in the lines.”

5. The only locks that exist are those that need keys to open them.”

6. “Most people prefer to bet on the ‘better’ team, the one that will probably win the game. Bet at the Right Time – “The sharp bettors tend to bet underdogs, and they tend to bet them early,” Moseman says. “Squares usually bet later in the week and they tend to pick the favorites. “Teams play inspired ball at home. Thanks to the juice, the only one who profits in this scenario is the bookmaker. Giving 11 to 10 odds is almost always the cheapest price you can give.”

Also, it’s probably a good idea to disregard advice from the myriad of ex-players and football experts you see on television each week. And why not? We have unconditional love for the sport and betting $50 or $100 on a game adds an extra rush of adrenaline.

Although exact figures are impossible to calculate, according to Jimmy Vaccaro, widely considered to be Las Vegas’ most influential bookmaker, Americans probably wager more than $50 billion a year on NFL and college football combined. The only touts bettors should consider are the ones who talk about the long haul and realistic winning percentages, which are in the upper 50 percent to lower 60 percent range.”

However, Konik adds that there are some bettors who actually know how to beat the bookies. He loses year after year, according to Dan Gordon, a top football handicapper and author of How to Beat the Sports Books (Cardoza Publishing 2005). The payout is just the same as far as he is concerned. Also, being “in action” can make a dull late-afternoon game (Buffalo vs. If you are going to go with a favorite, it is best to place your bet early in the week when the sharps are laying heavy money on the points. Consider Underdogs – “In the long-run, it’s easier to win betting on the underdog,” Konik says. Avoid Exotic Bets – “For very skilled handicappers, with a proven track record, there can, at least in theory, be value in betting parlays,” says Gordon on the type of bet that combines two or more individual wagers. In fact, sports bettors must pick 52.4 percent winners just to break even.”

4. Research Football Services – “Most sports services realize that most people who sign up with them are insecure,” Gordon warns. But, when you’re struggling, that’s when you want to reduce your bet size until you get out of your slump. Locks Don’t Exist – “Anyone who has watched sports for about a month realizes that the difference between winning and losing, especially against the spread, can be infinitesimally small,” Gordon says. Focus on Conferences – “The best way to win money betting football is to develop a niche and follow it closely,” Moseman advises. “If you listen to their advice, you are sure to lose.

“The bookies fear and despise a tiny coterie of professional bettors known as ‘the sharps,'” Konik says.

Moseman agrees and especially likes home underdogs. “Thus, the bookies love and cherish the squares.”

While these tips don’t guarantee you’re going to win, hopefully they can make you a little less square and a little more sharp in your picks this season.

10. If you like an underdog, it is best to get your bet in as late as possible, where there is heavy action from squares on favorites.

“A sharp or smart has a plan of what he wants to do,” says Vaccaro, the director of sports operations and public relations at Lucky’s Race and Sports Book in Las Vegas. “If you become an expert on a smaller conference like the WAC, you have a good chance to beat the house because sports book operators do not have the time or resources to follow this conference the way you can. Avoid Chasing Bets – “Don’t do it! There is no worse way to mismanage your bankroll than to chase your bets after a losing day,” cautions Moseman on the dangerous practice of trying to immediately win back your losses. Drinking and Gambling Don’t Mix – “There is a reason the casinos in Las Vegas supply you with free drinks while you are gambling,” Moseman says. They use powerful computers that can process millions of bits of data and produce a more accurate point-spread line than the bookmakers.”

Betting on football games; whether it’s through a local bookie, an offshore Internet site or a Nevada casino (still the only legal place in America to make football bets), most of us have done it or know of someone who has. “In trying to bamboozle potential customers, many services make claims about having scouts all over the country that give them inside information and promise 70 or even 80 percent winners, as if the bookmakers were the biggest suckers in the world.

So, how much are we gambling each football season?

And where does all that money go?

But even though the math says it’s virtually impossible to win on a consistent basis, Americans continue to bet on football. Big underdogs often find ways to cover the spread and they rarely give up toward the end of a game in front of the home crowd.”

“Most people with an understanding of football gambling bet between 3 percent and 5 percent of their bankroll, increasing when they win and reducing when they lose,” Vaccaro says. “He is not jaded by teams and does not bet with his heart. He is not taken in by being involved in USC-Notre Dame just because it is the biggest watched game of the day.

“There is probably no better bet in sports than playing an underdog at home,” Moseman says. So underdogs tend to be slightly undervalued – except by the sharps.”

Another difference between squares and sharps is how they approach betting on game day.

Newspapers and popular sports sites routinely publish the lines or point spreads for games, and football insiders offer their picks to viewers each week on ESPN and other cable networks. Chasing losses is the fastest way to the poor house.”

“A square or recreational player might have a vague plan, but after two Corona’s he will definitely run to the window and make a hasty decision on the USC-Notre Dame game because he wants to be involved in the party atmosphere,” Vaccaro says. “In the NFL, a game will often be totally turned around by one or two plays, or even a single penalty.

“A square is the average, unsophisticated gambler whose decision making is based on hunches, media manipulation, or spurious systems that cannot overcome the bookmaker’s inherent mathematical advantage,” Konik explains.

8. Oakland comes to mind) seem like the Super Bowl. “Because alcohol clouds your judgment and usually helps you to make rash decisions you usually wouldn’t otherwise make. Money Management – “This is without a doubt the most important aspect of betting on sports and possibly the most neglected,” says Morey “Doc” Moseman, a professional gambler and sports consultant with DocSports.com for nearly 40 years. “When you’re in a good rhythm and winning, you want to increase your bets. “The sharps are usually members of a betting syndicate privy to the most up-to-date information on injuries, weather, game plans, and, most important, the real power of the teams involved. Otherwise, you’re better off doing your own research.”

7. “There will be more discrepancy in the numbers at different sports books. Shop For Numbers – “Another important aspect of betting on football is shopping for the best number,” Moseman explains.

. The NFL, for example, will have very similar numbers at most of the betting shops you visit.

So, how much should you bet a game?

“The biggest mistake that amateur bettors make is they increase their bets when they are losing,” Sevransky says. “The key to proper money management is to be sure not to bet more than you can afford to lose.”

And remember, in the immortal words of “Fast” Eddie Felson, “Money won is twice as sweet as money earned.”

So, is it possible for the average square to become a little sharper in making football bets this season? According to professionals like Vacarro, Konik and Gordon, amateur bettors have the best chance to win if they demonstrate a little patience and follow the 10 basic tips below.

Ted Sevransky, a well-known Las Vegas gambler and sports consultant with Sportsmemo.com, agrees.

Michael Konik, a sports writer and best-selling author of The Smart Money (Simon & Schuster 2006), explains why it is so hard for the recreational gambler to win at betting on football. There are almost an infinite number of scenarios that can happen in a single football game. “For example, if you have a $1,000 bankroll for the season, you should generally bet no more than $50 a game.”

“The talking heads on TV know nothing about sports betting,” says Sevransky. On college you will be able to find different lines at different sports books. Not all games work according to this formula, but it is usually a good rule of thumb.”

9. To be a successful sports bettor you need to operate with a clear mind.”


“In an average season, fewer than one bettor in twelve turns a profit,” Gordon says. “As for me, the best bet in football is betting the point spread or over/under totals on individual games. Slim underdogs regularly win outright. “Over the course of several seasons, the percentage of bettors who turn a profit is minuscule.”

Even Hollywood is not immune – think Two for the Money with Al Pacino and Matthew McConaughey.


But that doesn’t mean you have to bet like a “square” and throw away your hard-earned money.


A Look At Lsu Tigers College Football

He was able to follow up the next season with another Conference win.

One of the greatest players to ever come out of Louisiana State University is Billy Cannon. They ended up losing to Penn State 19-17.

The Fighting Tigers didn’t play their next Bowl Game until January 1, 1936. He has a record of 51-14-0.

The Bayou Bengals played in the Capital Bowl on 1-1-10. The game was played in front of 10,000 fans at La Tropical Stadium in Havana, Cuba, making Louisiana State the first U.S. Tiger Stadium is the 9th largest stadium in the NCAA today, and is nicknamed “Death Valley,” due to its high level of cheering.

LSU has played in forty two Bowl Games and has composed a record of 22-19-1. He also won the Heisman Trophy in 1959. Miles began coaching the Fighting Tigers in 2005, and has the teams best winning percentage of .785. They play at Tiger Stadium, an outdoor stadium that holds 92,400 people. In 2000 he was selected for the All-Century Team by the Walter Camp Football Foundation.

Since joining the SEC, the Tigers have won 10 SEC Conference Championships.

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

The only other number retired at LSU is 37. He played three seasons for the Tigers in 1957, 1958, and 1959. College team to play on foreign soil. They won their first SEC title in 1935 under head coach Bernie Moore. Louisiana State University lost the next two years in the Sugar Bowl to Santa Clara.

Les Miles will lead Louisiana State University into the 2010 season on September 4th with a non conference game against North Carolina.. They played in the first ever Barcardi Bowl on 12-25-1907. Alabama tickets and contains information about the history, coaches and stadium for the LSU Tigers.

By: Jason Forthofer

Louisiana State University is located in Baton Rouge and their football team is currently in the Southeastern Conference. LSU crushed Havana University 56-0, giving them a win in their first Bowl Game.

LSU won their tenth and last SEC Championship with current head coach Les Miles in 2007. They lost in the Sugar Bowl to Texas Christian 3-2. His number 20 jersey was retired following his 1959 season, and he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame on December 9, 2008.

Jason Forthofer writes alot about college football and owns a website selling LSU vs. In 1958 and 1959 he was voted United Press International College Player of the Year. Tommy Casanova played the 1969, 1970, and 1971 seasons with the University

Slow-pitch Softball Hitting Tips

Whichever grip you choose, make sure you are comfortable with it. General muscle strengthening exercises help in building strength, and bat speed. Therefore, it is important that you select a bat which is neither too heavy nor too light. Once he/she drops the ball, predict the ball speed, and hit the ball with full swing. so, practice as much as you can.

One of the most important tip, crucial for any sport, is regular exercise. The upper hand almost overlaps the lower one in this grip position. Practicing this drill will increase your concentration, and enhance your hitting technique.

Drop Toss

Assume your stance with your partner facing you. Tips to Improve Your Game

Colored Ball Soft Toss

Get different color balls, and ask your partner to toss two balls at different heights. There must be a gradual shift of weight from the back foot to the front foot as the stroke is executed. You can try spin shots by hitting the lower part of the ball. This drill will teach you to wait for the ball to come to you, however long or short the pitch, instead of you going towards the ball. Ask your partner to drop the ball, and move herself/himself away from your strike zone. A very heavy bat may in fact, reduce the speed of the ball after it hits the bat. Always keep your eyes on the ball, anticipate the pitch, and then strike with accuracy. Grip the bat firmly, but don’t strangle the handle. The popularity of this version gained rapidly and around 1926, it was officially named softball. Once you’ve mastered the first version of this drill, you can try with three balls, or allow your partner to call out colors that aren’t being tossed. To be safe, you may ask your partner to stand on a chair, and then drop the ball. Everybody has a different way of gripping the bat. This ensures a longer hit.

Bounce Toss

Ask your partner to stand 10 feet away from you, and ask him/her to overhand toss a ball so that it bounces. Keep your hands loose, relax your arms. Here, we have provided some hitting tips along with some practice drills that are sure to help you improve your game.

The Art of Hitting in Slow-Pitch Softball

The more you practice, easier it will be for you to estimate and anticipate what kind of pitch is being directed towards you. Extend your arms when you go through with your hitting motion. Practice hitting different types of pitch to perfect this.

Drills for Practice

Did You Know….. in Amarillo, 1978, Bruce Meade hit a slow-pitch softball 510 feet, for the longest home run, a record which still stands today.


The right hitting posture is very important. This makes hitting vital to slow-pitch softball. This will ensure that you generate better bat speed through your hitting area.

Softball rules and regulations, though mostly similar to baseball, differ in a few aspects, which you should be aware of before playing the game. For variation, you can change the release points as well as vary the speed of the balls. It is primarily played in two ways, fast-pitch, and slow-pitch. You should have an idea about the various styles and tricks that the pitcher is permitted to use while pitching. This maximizes the distance it travels, with an increase in the spin. Slightly bend your right leg (if you are right-handed) and back, before the pitch. Scoring or hitting runs in fast-pitch softball is relatively easier as the batter can utilize the speed of the pitched ball to strike it in the field. Then ask him/her to call out one of the two colors, you are supposed to hit that ball.

In 1887, a variant of baseball was invented by George Hancock, a journalist for the Chicago Board of Trade, that could be played indoors. The most crucial factor in hitting slow-pitch softball is timing, and power. It will make you adept at reckoning all types of slow-pitch softball pitching.

Studying the Pitcher

It is equally important to study the pitcher. Any softball player, be it the one who plays on Sundays for recreation or one who is serious and wants to play professionally, would want to hit better, stronger and longer. The above mentioned tips, and regular practice, will help you in becoming an asset for your team. Whereas in slow-pitch, the hitter has to generate speed through his strength in order to hit the ball further and faster. An example being, placing the bat knob between the ring and pinkie finger. This tracking drill, will help you develop hand speed for hitting the ball.

Choosing A Bat

First things first, choose the right bat which suits your grip, and is comfortable to swing and hit. It had smaller playing dimensions, a smaller bat and a softer, larger ball than baseball. You must wait for the first bounce, and then hit the ball once it reaches your smash zone. Make sure you time your swing right, to deliver a powerful shot. Remember to keep the body and leg posture the same for all pitch locations, and simply make adjustments with your hands. The natural swing should be followed through completely. Once the bat makes contact with the ball, continue with your swing, even after the impact. In order to produce the hardest hit, delivered with maximum power, you need to generate tremendous bat speed. Your posture not only helps maintain balance, but also provides stability to deliver more powerful hits. Your partner should hold the ball at shoulder height. You can also practice using a Wiffle ball bat, or by hitting basketballs.

. It is absolutely essential that you get your body in top condition with good flexibility for generating powerful shots. The shoulder should be lifted slightly during the swing, and should not drop back. This will help maintain balance, and give you a better chance of hitting every pitch.

Swinging the Bat

Swing fast at the ball, try to get the barrel of the bat to meet the middle of the ball. A grip with two or three fingers of the top hand overlapping the lower one, can generate decent bat speed. A 28-ounce bat is recommended as it gives the player both, speed and flexibility to swing his arms.

The Grip

Another major factor is the grip which can vary according to a player’s choice and comfort. There is a popular misconception that heavier bats allow more powerful hits, but it might not necessarily be the case every time. And finally, while you focus on the techniques, do not forget to enjoy the game, and have fun.

Keeping Eyes on The Ball

To deliver a successful hit, the vital thing is making solid contact with the ball. The thrust of the hands in the direction of the pitcher will deviate the ball and prevent it from being caught by the pitcher. Once you get the judgment of how the ball will come, time your stroke to hit the ball at the right moment to generate maximum hitting power. Be very careful with this drill, as there is a chance of injury. Try to anticipate how the ball will come, and which way it would swing

NCAA tries to block sports betting in New Jersey

The public comment period to protest the proposed regulations ends on Aug.

First Published: August 7, 2012: 12:19 PM ET

The complaint targets N.J. Gov. Sports gambling is illegal in most states.

The document says the regulations will go into effect within the next two months, at which point casinos in Atlantic City and racetracks throughout the state can apply for sports gambling licenses.

“Gambling on amateur and professional sports threatens the integrity of those sports,” said the NCAA and the sports leagues in court documents.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association is trying to block New Jersey from allowing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and at racetracks around the state.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association is trying to block New Jersey from allowing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and at racetracks around the state.

The governor’s office was not immediately available for comment.

The complaint says the state is violating a federal law “enacted by Congress in 1992 in order to halt the spread of gambling on sporting events in the United States.” To top of page

The NCAA, along with the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and Major League Baseball, filed a complaint in New Jersey federal district court on Tuesday to try to block state officials from authorizing sports gambling.

NEW YORK (CNNMoney) — The National Collegiate Athletic Association and some of the most prominent sports leagues in America are trying to keep sports betting out of New Jersey.

The Division of Gaming Enforcement published its proposed regulations for gambling at casinos and racetracks on July 2. Chris Christie for signing a law in January that permitted betting on college and professional games at casinos and racetracks. They said sports gambling “would irreparably harm amateur and professional sports by fostering suspicion that individual plays and final scores of games may have been influenced by factors other than honest athletic competition.”

The complaint also names David Rebuck, assistant attorney general and director of the state’s Division of Gaming Enforcement, as well as Frank Zanzuccki, executive director of the New Jersey Racing Commission. 31, according to the complaint.

Best College Football Players of All Time

4. In 1923, he won, The Helms Athletic Foundation Championship. Doak Walker (Southern Methodist University): In 1948, as a Junior he won the Heisman trophy and was a three time All America which is outstanding. He rushed for 5, 259 yards in his three year NCAA playing days. He could run, jump, slide and score like no other quarterback could.

7. He won the Heisman trophy in 1982 and he helped to defeat Notre Dame to win the Sugar Bowl. Bo knows best.. Walker was a legend in his own time, he was another great and entertaining player. Also, tell me who you think the number 1 player in college football history is.

1. Jackson had 43 rushing touchdowns and 4,303 total rushing yards in his four year college stint. Charles Woodson (Michigan): In 1997 Woodson won the Heisman trophy playing Iron man for the Wolverines. That is to say he played offense and defense. He helped Michigan go undefeated and win the National Championship He was a true defensive talent that helped him get 18 interceptions, 395 yards receiving and even two rushing scores. In the 80s John Elway was a household name. When he touched the ball you knew great things were going to happen.

Please feel free to leave comments in the comments box at the bottom of this page because I love reading others’ opinions. Archie Griffin (Ohio State): Griffin had a banner Junior year rushing for 1,695 yards and scored a total of 12 touch downs in 1974. Bo Jackson (Auburn): Bo Jackson won the Heisman trophy in 1985 and he was the consensus All American in 1983 and again in 1985. Walker had over 2,000 rushing and receiving total yards, 14 passing touchdowns and over 1,600 total pass yards.

5. Red passed for 575 yards and tossed three touch downs.

6. He passed the football for a very high 77 touchdowns and his yards for his four year career were outstanding with 9,349 passing yards. What a player he was nominated three times for the Heisman winning it once in 2007. I really enjoyed watching Woodson go on to play for the Oakland Raiders. He led his team to National Championships in 2006 and 2008. Thorpe had over three thousand yards on the ground, 330 passing yards and over 700 yards in kick off and punt returns.

9. 88 passing touchdowns, 57 rushing touchdowns and 9, 285 passing yards to go along with 2,947 rushing yards. He is the only Two time Heisman trophy recipient and had some nice stats including 25 rushing scores and over five thousand career rushing yards.

10. Jim Thorpe (Carlisle Indian): In 1911 and 1912 he was an All American and he led his team to a National Championship in 1912. He has played all over the field including running back, punt returner and even quarterback. He was a half back, defensive back, kicker and punter. Barry Sanders went on to play for the Detroit Lions as a running back and although he never won a Superbowl, he is widely considered one of the top running backs in Detroit Lions history.

8. John Elway (Stanford): He was an All American in 1982, and finished second in the running for The Heisman Trophy voting that same year. Bo Jackson was fortunate to be a part of the winning Auburn Tigers for the Sugar Bowl and the Liberty Bowl and was the MVP of both football contests. He played wide receiver and quarterback on occasion. Tim Tebow (Florida): The Florida Gators star quarterback has amazing statistics. Tim Tebow was one of my favorite college players to watch play. He was a corner back and knocked downed lots of football passes and made lots of interceptions as well.

3. Barry Sanders (Oklahoma State): He easily won the Heisman trophy in 1986 while rushing for 2,628 yards. He won the Holiday Bowl and had nice stats including: 3,556 rushing yards, 47 TD’s and over 1,400 yards from punt and kick returns. Herschel Walker (Georgia): Walker had statistics that can not be denied when he was the half back for the Georgia Bulldogs. Grange had 2,071 rushing yards and over 900 yards from punt and kick off returns. You must have respect because Bo knows multiple sport success. He was a corner back, kick returner and a wide receiver. He won the Maxwell Award and he played lots of positions which is amazing. Look at these numbers. He could do amazing thing when he touched a football.

2. Red Grange (Illinois): Grange won All American honors three years in a row. He also had 49 rushing touchdowns

Research and Markets: Forecasting in Financial and Sports Gambling Markets: Adaptive Drift Modeling Identifies Periods of Inefficiency and Develops Profitable Forecasting Models

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10-Year Rule To Become An Expert

“How do you get to Carnegie Hall?” the adage goes. Now, I am exploring “best practices” in fundraising and endowment campaigns as part of my Ph.D. To contribute to the field and challenge myself, I created a 10-credit college grant writing certification program. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press, Inc.

Performers who rely on a large amount of apparent spontaneity (i.e., orators and comedians, for example) actually do follow rules of impeccable timing and use expertise in voice modulation and intentional pausing, amongst other personal skills many that are not apparent to the novice (I would say here I’m at the ‘apprentice’ level). Mastery is also needed, they claim, for creative products to be widely accepted and recognized by others, especially critics. She relies on her extensive expertise in hypnosis, theater, group dynamics, and comedy (her father was a comedy writer for Bob Hope and the creator of the famous “Who’s On First?” skit). I received a great deal of public recognition after I gained performance mastery in the sport of football. He is an authority in how to get grants, scholarships and fundraising, as well as an authority in finding and branding your niche, completion, and working at home. He implies that a certain amount of the patterns, knowledge and rules of a field like physics must be ‘internalized’ before deeper incubation can occur or creative, scientific breakthroughs be made.

At least two creativity theorists (Csikszentmahalyi & Piirto) argue that creativity (with a big “C”) relies upon a certain degree of mastery over a domain in order for a creator to be successful. Piirto calls this the “10 year rule.” “Any person,” she claims, “must have been working in a domain for a minimum of 10 years in order to achieve international recognition” (15).

Support for the 10-year rule may be found in the expertise (or eminence) hypothesis presented by Piirto that “every field and domain of knowledge in which creativity can be demonstrated has novice levels, apprenticeship levels, expert levels, and special jargons” (15). I got involved in school-supported football at that point (8th grade). . Starting in 1988, I wrote (and management) 48 out of 52 successful grant proposals (92+% success rate). In short, what role does a master teacher plays in producing creative genius and progressing from novice to expert? What is it that allows for mastery to take place? One explanation, says Piirto, is that “master coaches and teachers have codified the knowledge necessary for mastering the domain” (15). I basically documented “what works” in grant writing and began teaching others what I knew. There are few rules for creativity, they claim. Finally, two personal examples will be used to support the 10-year rule.


Piirto, J. However, even with improvisational genius, some degree of expertise and rule-following is required as a foundation beyond “practice, practice, practice.”

In this essay, the 10-year rule will be introduced using arguments presented by Jane Piirto and Mihaly Csikszentmahalyi. Morever, little has been written about the relationship of the expert with his or her master teacher along the continuum of creativity levels. (2004). My experience and practice in football totaled more than 10 years.


We’ve all heard performance artists say how much they studied music and practiced with an instrument like the guitar before they were able to play more advanced classical pieces and develop their own unique style. In essence, they are the key holders to the secret code.

Finally, the second example of the 10-year rule happened to me professionally. (1996). Nonetheless, exploration of the levels of creativity (i.e., novice, apprenticeship, expert) has largely evaded theorists. In other words, a discoverer must be familiar with a discipline for deeper creative solutions to emerge.

You are granted permission to use this article in your blog, ezine or newsletter in its entirety (including references and bio)

Personally, there are two examples of the 10-year rule that I can apply to my life personally and professionally. This area is easy for me, I’m confident speaking and writing, and my contributions are almost immediately well-received largely because I enjoy grant writing/management and teaching experience of more than 12 years.

Phil Johncock is an award-winning author, educator and mentor. The first happened during high school. She once told me that in 20 years she compiled over 200 unpublished 400-page manuscripts on the shelves that she has used as scripts for her presentations. One of the foundations for her speaking is a scripted text that represents countless hours of research and analysis (also her genius) of a wide range of subjects, from the new field of social artistry to spiral dynamics to ancient mystery school practices. He argues that it is impossible “for a person who has not mastered a domain or been involved in a field” (102) to take full advantage of the incubation phase. This is indeed a valid argument. Criticisms may also come from those who associate creativity with spontaneous, free flowing improvisations. My students have since gone on to generate over $1.2 billion in funding in 2.5 years. Jean Houston. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Criticisms may come from people who say that everyone is creative (with a small “c”); unfortunately, this is beyond the scope of this essay. She employs a great deal of spontaneity and humor along with wildly evocative and energizing lexicon (i.e., universal self, core tapping, pollination, social artistry, passion for the possible, lure of becoming) launched with such delicacy and impeccable timing. “Practice, practice, practice!”

Csikszentmihalyi, M. In other words, one thing that may define people with a consistently high level of creative performance is the degree of expertise in a specific domain or discipline that has taken place over time, as well as practice and experience. You can reach Phil at www.4Grants.Net and www.BrandYourNiche.com/blog.

Author’s Bio: 

Confirmation for the 10-year rule also appears in the work of Csikszentmihalyi, specifically regarding the ‘incubation’ phase of creativity. One of the primary criticisms of the 10-year role – namely the spontaneous nature of creativity – will also be addressed. Creativity: flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. She is also one of the most widely-read people I know. Although I had been playing organized football for only five years, I had watched a lot of football on TV previously. For example, one of the greatest public speakers that I’ve ever heard is Dr. Two years later, Coach Pessell elevated me to the varsity team as a sophomore to challenge me even more and bring my fledgling skills to a higher level. I wrote a masters thesis on the “Metaphysics of Successful Grant Writing” which I turned into a teaching/learning book on grant writing. I received many accolades (i.e., all-state running back, school and state (Michigan) records-setter, and Hall of Fame athlete) as a result of my performance during my senior (12th) year. These may not be apparent on the surface to a novice but they represent many decades of practice and experience.

To support the role of master teachers presented earlier, I would like to appreciate my high school football coach, Fred Pessell, for challenging me in middle school to be a better running back than Ralph Ryan, a classmate. Finally, it was Coach Pessell’s adaptation of the Ohio State Buckeye’s power-I offense that created a structure through which my talent flourished and shined. That challenge ignited a competitive drive for me to move forward. I also participated in pick-up games and organized sports like baseball and basketball with neighbors for more than five years. Understanding creativity

Baseball Hitting Drills – Tips and Drills For Using Hitting Stick Trainers by Nick Dixon

The first thing to remember is that the holder should always direct the rod and ball toward the hitter’s back foot. This teaches the batter to allow the ball down the middle to get inside the front foot so that maximum power can be generated during the swing. This high speed training machine is 100% Guaranteed to raise Batting Averages and has a full year warranty.

5. The batter may have to take a slight inward step with the front foot to properly execute this swing.

7. Second, the holder must stand at the proper angle to the batter and direct the ball at the correct angle to the batter. Remember to direct the ball toward the belly button or back foot of the batter.

Coaching Points:

6. This simple rule insures that proper bat-to-ball contact is made. HIP TURNER LOCATION – The holder stands slightly behind the batter directing the ball at the batter’s bat pocket. The batter will drive the bat through the box. ^Hit2win is a registered trademark of Nedco Sports Products. Allowing the ball to pass inside the front foot allows the batter to use the front foot and leg as a anchor and leverage to generate a more powerful swing.

10. The batter does not move. Make sure the batter does not over stride.

The popularity come from the benefits they offer the baseball player, baseball coach, and the baseball parent. All of these baseball trainers basically work and perform the same. You can learn to hit without having to chase, pick-up or retrieve a single ball. The height of the ball should be raised and lowered in the strike zone to give the batter swings at both high and low strikes.

2. Every player on the team can take 30 warm-up swings each in less than 10 minutes. . +SKLZ Target is a registered trademark of Pro Performance Sports.

The 4X5 Baseball and Softball Pre-game Warm-up Drill

The batter takes 5 swings at 5 different ball locations. First, the product is to be used as a “still” ball trainer. I sometimes get frustrated because I observe the product being used incorrectly.

*HitnStik is a registered trademark belong to Easton Sports. Then later came other versions including the Hit2win Trainer^ and the SKLZ Target Trainer. Check out the Bat Action Hitting Machine baseball pitching simulator at http://BatAction.com. I often see coaches and parents working with players when I visit a park. The first and original version was the HitnStik*. The batter swings and drives the ball in a direction that would be to the opposite field. The unit is portable and requires no setup. If the angle is wrong, the end of the bat will hit behind the ball and the bat will never actually touch the ball. They have different names but they all are great trainers to teach and train young players. The ball should be positioned at a location inside the batters front foot. Check to make sure the batter is using proper grip, stance and stride mechanics.

2. The purpose of these swings is to make the batter use the hips as the batter turns and hits the ball. 3. The ball will be positioned in a location behind the front foot. All of these are handheld units. MIDDLE STRIKE CONTACT – The holder will move around a couple more feet. It is important to know the proper angles when using this product.

Baseball Hitting Drills – Tips and Drills For Using Hitting Stick Trainers

 by: Nick Dixon

As the inventor of the HitnStik*, Hit2win Trainer^, and SKLZ Target+ Trainer, I sometimes cringe when I see someone using the product incorrectly. The ball hit is on the middle 3rd of the plate. The batter should attack the inside strike earlier to keep from getting jammed.

The holder changes location and height and allows the batter to take 6 swings at each location. The batter should take a step and drive the ball.

3. Positive reinforcement should be given when the batter makes good solid contact.

4. Make sure the ball is directed at the batter’s back foot.

1. The holder will change the location of the ball by moving.

The key to proper use of any hand-held batting device is KNOWING AND USING THE CORRECT ANGLE FOR THE DRILL YOU ARE DOING! If you do not direct or point the ball at the proper angle, the batter will always make poor contact. Make sure that the hitting area is safe with no one within 15 feet of the holder or the batter.

4. The holder should make sure that the trainer safety strap is used to prevent the holder from losing their grip on the trainer when the batter hits the ball.

There are many versions of the “ball-on-a-rod” trainer. Make sure that the batter is swinging in a direction that is free of persons should the batter lose the grip on the bat.

1. These trainers are some of the most popular baseball batting trainers used today.

The http://BaseballCoachingDigest.com has a great selection of BASEBALL COACHING and TRAINING ARTICLES. This location simulates hitting a pitch over the inside 3rd of the plate. The ball should be at a location just inside the batters back foot. AWAY STRIKE LOCATION – The holder will move around a couple more feet to give the batter a ball to hit that is on the outer 3rd of the plate. The ball should be positioned slightly in front of the batters front foot. This is what I call “coning out”.

8. The batter should keep the head still and the head should stay down with the eyes on the ball throughout the swing.

9. It is welcomed in complexes and parks because it allows safe pre-game warm-up, requires little space, and does not damage fences. You should not move the ball when using these trainers. INSIDE STRIKE – The holder moves toward the direction of the pitcher from the batter

How the Sports Betting Line is Made by RJ Bell

People think it’s much more complicated, but it’s not.”

There is a common misconception that point spreads represent the oddsmakers’ prediction of how many points the favorite will win by.

Contributed by:

Once a game’s power rating based pointspread is determined, the oddsmaker will make adjustments to that line after considering each team’s most recent games played and previous games played against that opponent.

The last step in the line-making process for each oddsmaker is taking one final look to determine whether or not the line “feels right.” This is where common sense and past experience with how games are bet enters into the picture. By moving the line, sportsbooks can influence how the public bets on a particular game. “We’re not trying to pick the team that covers the spread, we’re trying to make it a coin flip, a tough decision (for the bettor). We do this by drawing from past experiences and applying them to current situations. Of the 4-5 oddsmakers, generally the 2 most respected opinions are weighed more heavily by the Odds Director before he decides on the final line. The power ratings are adjusted after each game a team plays. This usually includes having up-to-date power ratings on each team. Examples of non-game factors that would require an adjustment to a team’s power rating are key player injuries and player trades.

Once the opening line is released by LVSC, the individual sportsbooks decide if they want to make any adjustments before offering it to the public. Each of these oddsmakers bring unique opinions, strengths and weaknesses to the process. If we’ve done that, we’ve done our job.”

Individual books having players who consistently bet with certain tendencies (such as an extreme bias toward favorites or toward a certain popular team like USC)

Since the oddsmaker’s ultimate goal is equally dividing the betting action, public perception and betting patterns must be taken into account.

A round-table discussion among the 4-5 oddsmakers involved in making the line for each sport is then conducted and a consensus line is decided upon by the Odds Director before it is released to the sportsbooks. That is not the case at all – their intent is NOT to evenly split the ATS result between the teams; rather, their goal is to attract equal betting action on both sides.

How the Opening Line Is Made

Why the Line Changes

Las Vegas Sports Consultants (LVSC) is the world’s premier oddsmaking company and the most respected authority on making the lines.

The purpose of these adjustments, like all line adjustments, is to more equally divide the betting action. “The main objective is that our clients get equal action on both sides,” Seba said.

Divided action means the sportsbook is guaranteed a profit on the game because of the fee charged to the bettor (called juice or vig – typically $11 bet to win $10). Oddsmakers have to determine if any changes are necessary and send out an “adjusted line.”

“The #1 thing for us is to make a line for each game that creates good two-way action.

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

What Is the Line Trying to Accomplish?

“You either have a passion for it or you don’t,” Seba said. If an oddsmaker comes up with a preliminary line of USC -7, then an adjustment up to -7.5 or -8 would be made in response to the public’s expected USC bias. In doing so they attempt to make more attractive the team that is getting less action.

Moving the line is the oddsmaker’s effort to balance betting action, and often times such moves can have a major impact on a bettor’s decision.

Experts working for the individual books having a strong opinion on the game

Oddsmakers at LVSC are professional sports junkies who love what they do and would probably do it for nothing if you asked them, but they do get paid for it. Mike Seba is a Senior Oddsmaker at LVSC and has been making lines for the last six years. Of course there is an entire method to the madness on how the opening line is created.

For example, if the pointspread on a game is 7 and most of the money is coming in on the underdog (taking the +7), sportsbooks will then move the number down to 6 ½ to try and attract money on the favorite. Reasons for such adjustments include:

The opening line is the first line created by the oddsmakers, which is then sent out to sportsbooks.

Power ratings are the oddsmaker’s value of each team and are used as a guide to calculate a “preliminary” pointspread on an upcoming game. By necessity their approach is very research-oriented and concise, since with millions of dollars at risk there is little margin for error. Also, adjustments are made after reading each team’s local newspapers to get a sense of what the coaches & players are thinking going into the game. In our extended interview, Seba explained that there are 4-5 oddsmakers assigned to make lines for each of the major sports (pro & college football and basketball; MLB, NHL, boxing, golf). For example, the public might have heavy betting interest week after week on a popular college football team such as USC. Seba explained that it all starts with each oddsmaker creating a line on each game based upon their own personal approach.

Oddsmakers can also change the line depending on various event-related factors such as player injuries or weather. .

Once betting begins, sportsbooks can adjust the line at any time. Obviously, if the line comes out a week ahead of the event (which is the case in football), there is much that could happen during the week leading up to the event that could affect the line. Stated another way, they want to create a line that half the people find appealing to bet one way while the other half find it appealing to bet the other way (known as ‘dividing the action’)

Derivatives: Futures and Options

They offer the trader, the option of passing on some of the risk that he’s bearing over to another party. First the futures and options are traded on the exchange traded derivatives market and are standardized instruments with negligible credit risk. These are extremely powerful instruments and though, ‘no guts no glory’ does summarize the ‘higher risk, higher potential return’ mantra of investment finance; having open positions in them is never prudent. So for once, a financial instrument has been named correctly, an instrument that derives its value from some other asset is termed as a derivative.

They are simple financial instruments. If you wish to play the stock markets, they offer an unbelievable amount of ground to play in, especially when it comes to hedging and risk management. But before you start thinking about having bigger yields out of these instruments, know a little more about them. Even though you have invested only $100, the position that you had taken in the market was on $10000 shares. Be careful and ask all the right questions before you bring out the cash.

Since most of them involve the play of big money with very little in the way of initial investment, most people fail to foresee the impact they can have on their total funds. Here’s and example of an underlying asset.

These markets happen to be of two types. Think about it and you’ll know why so many have gone down while betting on these instruments. Options are fantastic in their ability to cater to every possible need of the stock market trader. Forwards and futures prices are good reflectors of the price directions as well as the expected change in the future prices of the underlying asset.

They offer the traders an option to change the nature of their liabilities and exchange the risks associated with some of their unwanted liabilities with some more bearable ones.

They can be used to make arbitrage profits. While most financial assets have intrinsic asset values or prices, the intrinsic value of a derivative is based on the financial asset that forms the basis of a derivatives contract. The value of your option to either buy or sell the shares of this company, derives its value from the actual market prices of the underlying asset, in this case, the shares of company XYZ. Since it is the ‘right but not the obligation’ to buy an asset, it is obvious that the call option will only be exercised if the strike price is lower than the going market price for the underlying asset at that certain time in the future. But when you have a derivative option on the shares of this company, you are basically holding a financial instrument that has no intrinsic value of its own. Inexperienced options expire once their time duration ends and it is only the premium paid for buying the option that exchanges hands between the two parties.

Interest Rate Swaps

Futures contracts are derivatives very similar to forward contracts, with the main difference being that while forwards are traded OTC, futures are traded on an exchange. A call option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy a certain asset from the call option writer, by a certain date and for a certain price, known as the strike price. Arbitrage profit opportunities are those opportunities that allow for risk-free, zero net investment profits, by capitalizing on price differentials on the same commodity in different markets. For example, if a party has a fixed rate payment obligation and another one has a floating rate one, the two can swap their interest obligations with each other without settling the underlying debt.

Options are basically of two types, a call option and a put option. While spot is an immediate, present tense contract, a forward is a later date or future tense contract that is just being finalized today. Futures are also agreements to buy or sell commodities at a certain predetermined price at some predetermined time in the future. For many, what they invest in these instruments are their savings so you can only imagine the impact.

Many investors fail to understand that investing in them means indulging in a kind of leveraging. Futures and options trading is fantastic as a risk reducing measure (hedging), but may not be equally fantastic as a speculative bet, especially when you do not have the required expertise, neither in derivatives nor in forecasting.

Mastering these instruments can make you a millionaire overnight, but it is good to understand them first. When you hold a long position in a forward contract, i.e., you have agreed to buy the underlying commodity at the agreed price, your payoff will be the differential between the forward price and the spot rate at that point in the future (F – S). Research them and you will find a very grim picture, more houses have been broken with these instruments than have been built. These non-standardized financial instruments bear some amount of credit risk, since no exchange interferes between the buyer and the seller. Lack of knowledge coupled with greed, turn them into your worst possible nightmare. By definition, they are financial instruments that derive their intrinsic values from the underlying asset that they are based on. Options are not limited to the exchange traded derivatives markets and some are also traded on the OTC markets.

They are very good risk management tools and are mainly used to hedge risks that a trader is routinely exposed to. Forwards contracts are over-the-counter contracts that usually trade on commodities. Understanding Futures and Options

Learning about derivatives is one of the most important lessons to learn, for anyone making new forays into investment finance. Many an investor have fallen to greed in this market, for everyone else, it is a risk management boon.

Whether futures and options, or swaps and forwards, all require careful and deliberate study. Marginal swings in the value of these shares can leave you with the outcome – ‘Investment – $100 and Total Loss $100, 000′. There is no monetary transaction to the contract when it is first negotiated, and money only changes hands on contract maturity. Not understanding how they work and investing large sums of money in them blindly is a folly. They are a boon for the hedgers but not always so for the arbitrageurs and speculators.

Uses in Investment Finance

Shares of company XYZ have an intrinsic value of $20 each. For many of these instruments, small changes in the underlying asset can swing your fortunes from millionaire to bankrupt within seconds. Plain vanilla swaps, or the least complicated of swaps, allow two parties to swap their interest obligations. On the other hand, with a short position (agreement to sell), your payoff will be the differential between the spot price of the commodity then and the futures price that you have agreed on (S – F).

Below are some of the uses as listed by John C. He either takes on another risk in return or makes a cash payment in exchange for the risk transfer.

Instruments like forwards and futures play a key role in giving directions to the market prices of the future. These are normal financial instruments where you just buy or sell shares of company XYZ (for $20 each, if market value equals the intrinsic value). Hull in his 1999 book titled ‘Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives’.

Options Contracts. On the other hand, forwards, swaps, and CDS are usually traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. The term futures encompasses all things like foreign exchange futures and stock index futures as well. On the other hand, a put option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to sell a certain asset at an agreed price (strike price) by a certain date in the future. The intention is to buy low and sell high in two different markets and pocket the differential profits.

They allow for large portfolio position changes without incurring the buying and selling transaction costs.

Forwards Contracts and Futures Contracts

By definition, a forwards contract is ‘an agreement to buy or sell an asset for a predetermined, fixed price, at a certain time or date in the future’. They can be used to hedge open positions in stocks and this makes stock trading safer. How else is it possible that just investing $10 should help you take positions worth $1000. Two or more options can be combined together (synthetic options) to give the trader just the kind of payoff he was visualizing, given his forecasts of the future price movements on the stock exchange. The only difference between them and the normal financial instruments (like shares), is just the little term called ‘underlying asset’. Last but not the least, they lend monetary power to the traders, for they can take large positions in the stock market with the minimal amount of cash, i.e., by just paying the premium amounts.

Certain exotic types like Cacall, Caput, Barrier options, etc., lure investors with the greed of returns, but what happens many a time is that, traders fail to see the complexity involved in them. The only difference between a normal spot transaction and a forward transaction is the time span between the contract and its fulfillment. You’ll know then, why all traders haven’t mastered the art yet and become overnight millionaires. Know their uses and advantages, their drawbacks as well as their various types, namely forwards, swaps, futures and options.

What is the Derivatives Market?

Interest rate swaps are also derivatives for they too derive their values from the underlying debt instrument. Being traded on exchanges robs the futures of the customization that is available on forwards, but on the other hand, as exchanges play clearing houses in the transaction, futures have relatively lower credit risk.

A point to note here is that, while futures and forwards are obligatory buy and sell contracts for the holders, options are rights and not obligations that the holder can choose on whether to exercise or not. When investing in these instruments, be aware of the risk that you are taking on with that kind of leverage.

When they are used for hedging, they perform exceptionally well but when used for speculation, it is not prudent to rely too heavily on them. In a put option, the option will thus, only be exercised if the strike price is higher than the going market price at that specific point of time in the future

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